Zuufadlin Zaakiru Ibn Kafidubu writes;
WHEN SHOULD I BEGIN OBSERVING MY RAMADAN SAWM (FAST)?
BISMILLAHIR RAHMANIR RAHEEM
Alhamdulillah! All the exclusive thanks gratitude are due to Allah, the Glorious Lord for granting us the honor of being among the blessed ones; Muslims, endowed with the endless blessings of Ramadan, the month of Mercies and Forgiveness. And the peace and blessings of Allah be enshrouded upon our Beloved Muhammad Mustapha ﷺ, his household, and companions, which will endure until the day of recompense, Amin.
Today is Saturday, the 29th day of Al-Sha’aban Al-Mubarak in the year 1440 after the Migration of our Beloved Muhammad ﷺ, and either tomorrow or the next Ramadan Fast will be our daily mark for the next 29 or 30 days to come, most common to the ones that will be granted life and health. Interestingly, the most common controversy that has since been pulling the Umma to shreds is, the exact date to begin observing the Ramadan fasting. However, when we all submit our attention to the saying of our Blessed Prophet ﷺ, these contradictions and controversies would avail us naught.
The Prophet of Allahﷺ said, in an authentic narration; “do not observe fast until you have a visual of the crescent, and do not break the fast until you equally have its visual, but if it [the crescents] did not appear to you, then you should approximate it.”  And in another narration he made it quite clear so as to avoid any puzzlement. He said “The month (Ramadan month) has twenty-nine nights; hence, do not observe fast until you sight it [the crescent”, but should it fail to appear to you then you should complete it as thirty”. 
The use of calendar to judge on the exact date to begin our fasting is one of the things that always expose us to contradictions. The effect of the calendar should help us understand the calculation of days as they go by and to well ascertain the movement of the months. The calendar works best when we make reference to what the Prophet ﷺ said. We really can’t tell the number in Sha’aban [the month before Ramadan] and the rest of the months except the use of the calendar. And even when the Prophet ﷺ said we should observe the visual of the crescent on the 29th Sha’aban, we won’t be able to do perfectly without the use of the calendar.
Lets now examine the ruling in the Hadith we have stated earlier. “do not observe fast until we have the visual of the crescent”. Which is to say, today is the 29th of Sha’aban, we should all be responsible for observing the appearance of the crescent. According to the scholars of Fiqh, if a good number of trusted Muslims, with good morals and conduct, declares the visual of the crescent, they should be trusted and all the Umma should be convicted that the next day is first Ramadan, hence we should all start observing our Sawm (fast).
And also the saying : “but if it did not appear to you, then you should approximate it “the approximation here was explained further in another authentic narration, where the prophet said:” but if it does not appear to you, then you should complete Sha’aban [the month before Ramadan] as thirty days.”  you can read about the current status of the crescent
Simply put; on the 29th night of Sha’aban, we ought to all be responsible for observing the appearance of the crescent, if it appears to all or a few trusted ones, they should spread the information to the rest of Muslims and in general, we begin our fast the next day. But should we fail having a visual of Ramadan crescent we must complete Sha’aban for 30 days and the next day is undoubtedly or automatically 1st Ramadan.
If the crescent is seen tonight, tomorrow Sunday would be first Ramadan and hence, we should all should observe our Fast. But should it happen otherwise,i.e. the crescent not sighted tonight, no Sawm on Sunday, which then means Monday 6th would be 1st Ramadan.
Finally it is also imperative to know that one can not observe fast a day or two before Ramadan, making reference to the saying of our Beloved Prophet ﷺ said; he said: “No be of you should observe a fast in a day or two before Ramadan, except a person who was already observing his fast (a supererogatory one), then he can observe his fast”.  May Allah grant us understanding and make every intricate of our effort to meet the Divine Pleasure, Amin.
Allah is the Most Exalted, and He Knows Best!!!
Alhummah salli alaa Muhammadin, wa-Alihii, wasabihii wasallim.
 (Sahih-Bukhari :1909,Muslim:1081)
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