UNDERSTANDING THE QURAN SUURATUL FATIHA

Zuufadlin Zaakiru Ibn Kafidubu writes:

understanding the words of the quran suuratul fatiha

BISMILLAHIR RAHMANIR RAHEEM

                                 SÛRATUL- FATIHA(CHAPTER ONE ‘1’ )

All praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has sent down to His slave Muhammad Mustapha ﷺ the Book, and has not placed therein any crookedness. He has made it straight to give warning of a severe punishment from Him, and to give glad tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds, that they shall have a fair reward. And the peace and blessings of Allah be upon our Beloved Muhammad Mustapha, his household and companions which will endure until the Day of Recompense,Amin.

Without any iota of doubt, the chapter Fatiha is the most read chapter of the Qur’an. Every practicing Muslim recites it at least seventeen(17) times in a day since it forms part of the basis and pillars of Salat. In that; Salat is incomplete without the recitation of this chapter-Fatiha. The very reason why it is called the “chapter of Salat” though we will come to the names of it.

With this relevance of the chapter, it is more than imperative in the life of a Muslim to understand the meaning it contains; both terminological and historic and for that matter its values and importance. Allah grants us understanding, Amin.

                         OTHER NAMES OF THE CHAPTER

The Sûra-Fatiha has so many names. Each name is given as a result of a reason backed by either a verse from the Qur’an or a Hadith from the Blessed tongue of our Beloved Prophet peace be upon him, on whom the Qur’an was descended. Among the names are:

1. Sûratul-Fatiha: which means the chapter of opening;sinhce it is the first chapter in the arrangement of the chapters and before reciting any chapter of the Noble Qur’an,beginning with it is most beloved.

2. Ummul-Qur’an(the mother of Qur’an)

3. Ummul-Kitab(the mother of the Book (Qur’an) )

4. Sab’ul-Mathâni( the seven repeatedly)

5. Qur’anul-Azeem(the Grand Qur’an) The “Sab’ul Mathani” and “Qur’anul – Azeem” are contained in the same verse in the Qur’an; where Allah said:

And indeed! We have bestowed upon you seven repeatedly and the Grand Qur’an” [1] The chapter contains seven verses; hence it is called “the seven” and was as well descended twice, one in Makkah before the Prophetic Migration and one in Madina, after the Migration. The descention in these two Sacred places also is the meaning “Almathani”.

6. Al-Kanzu (the treasure); it was reported from the Blessed Prophet ﷺ, he said: “The chapter Fatiha was descended to me from a treasure beneath the Al-Arsh”. [2] 

7. Sûratul-Salat (the chapter of Salat); since Salat is never complete without it. It was reported from the Prophet peace be upon him,he said:”anyone who offers a Salat and did not recite the Ummul-Qur’an in it,then his Salat is crippled.”

8. Salat (Prayer); it is called Salat because of the Hadith Al-Qudusi(a Hadith of the Prophet ﷺ obtained through Divine Inspiration). Allah Ta’ala said in the Hadith: “I have divided Salat into two between Myself (Allah) and My servant, half is Mine and the other for My servant”.[3] Allah did replaced the chapter’s name with “Salat” so the chapter has got another name as “Salat”.

9. Al-Du’a (Supplication);since it is being used frequently in making Du’a.

10. Al-Ruqiyya (Medication); because of the saying of our Beloved Prophet ﷺ to one of his companions about the chapter Fatiha;he said:“you don’t know it might be a medication” [4]. And many more names that are attributed to the chapter.

ARABIC TEXT,TRANSLATION AND COMMENTARY OF THE CHAPTER

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيم

(1)In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
(2)All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin’ (mankind, jinn and all that exists).

الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
(3) The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
(4)The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense.

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ
(5) (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we seek for help.

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ
(6) Guide us to the straight path.

صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ
(7) The Path of those on Whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the path) 0f the who earned Your Anger nor of those who went astray.

(All the praises and thanks be to Allah); it is only Allah who deserves all thanks and gratitude, whether in His attribute or His work. The term used in expressing the gratitude there is “al-hamd” which is another name for”al-shukr”, however there is a difference between “al – hamd” and “al-shukr”; “al – shukru” is given gratitude in times of delight only but “al – hamd” is given in both delight and un-delight. Only Allah has the Power to be thanked in all these circumstances and that is the meaning of ‘al – hamdu-lillahi’.

(The Lord of Alamin); He is the Lord of mankind, jinn and all that exist. Simply put; the Lord of all that which is not Him.

(The Most Gracious); a form of Mercy which Allah in His Infinite Contrivance bestow on to all that exist in this world.

(The Most Merciful); an exclusive Mercy of Allah which is prepared only for believers and those who do righteous in this world, that is their recompense in the afterlife.

“Al – Rahman” and “Al – Raheem ” are both mercies of Allah but “Al – Rahman” is in this world and it’s benefit encompasses both believers and non – believers. Animals get to feed and care for their young ones out of that Mercy of Allah, however, “Al – Raheem” is more exclusive and thus entitled to only believers and pious ones on the Day of Recompense. The Mercy of beings peace be upon him said in an authentic Hadith: “Allah has created hundred Mercies, He held back ninety – nine of it and released only one to all that exists in this world. We get to benefit from that Mercy and enjoy from all goodness and delight. In fact, with the pinnacle of that single Mercy of Allah,creatures have mercy for one another, even animals on their young ones. And when it is the Day of Judgement, this one would be added to the reserved ninety nine and it will become hundred. That is exclusive to only the faithful, thus, none will receive that Mercy except those of Faith (believe in Allah, i.e. believing in the Monotheism of Allah and doing acts of goodness righteousness)” [5]

(The only owner of the Day of Recompense); Allah is indeed the Owner of the Day of Recompense. There are kings in this world but their kingship seizes the very day the seize to breathe. However,the Kingship and Mighty of Allah will continue to exist even beyond the Day of Judgement. There is no King except Him Allah. When He throws a challenge on that Day: “To whom belongs the Kingship of Today?” None will answer among creatures and He will answer it Himself: “It is to Allah Alone the Supreme”. 

(You (Alone) we worship,and You (Alone) we seek for help ); There is none who deserves to be worshipped except Him Allah. He created the world and all it’s entities. Also,we do not seek for any help or aid from anyone except from Allah. When a reciter gets to this point he has done something called: “al – tafweed” (Submission), and Allah will respond to you saying: “once you have submitted yourself to My Will, seek for anything you need, then the reciter will continue…

(Guide us to the straight path); the servant is now seeking for guidance from Allah the Mighty and Glorious Lord. The “straight path” here means the path of the Prophets and Messengers of Allah, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all. He continued…

(The Path of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace); among the Prophets are those that Allah has bestowed His Delight and Grace, as in the words of the Qur’an: “Or do they envy men (Muhammad ﷺ and his followers) for what Allah has given them of His Bounty? Then We had already given the family of Ibrahim (Abraham) the Book and Wisdom, and conferred upon them a great Kingdom.[6]

(Not the Path of those who earned Your Anger); it is reported from authentic source, from the Blessed Tongue of our Beloved Muhammad ﷺ, that the ones who earned the Anger of Allah are the Jewish for they knew the truth about the coming of Muhammad ﷺ but they acted otherwise, they refused to adhere to the teaching of Muhammad ﷺ.

            Allah Is The Most Exalted And He Knows Best!!!

This Post Has 7 Comments

  1. May Allah give us understanding.May He help us to put it into practice aamin.Thank you for the knowledge shared, may He reward you for that.Allahuma innii as’aluka janna.

    1. Aaaamin Yaa Allah. We’re very grateful for your time with us. Allah grants you more understanding……

  2. Ma sha Allah

  3. Jazak’Allahu khaira. May Allah Ta’ala forgive us of our shortcomings and bestow His mercies on us that we may follow the right path of which He is pleased.

    1. Aaaamin Yaa Allah. We’re very pleased with your time with us. Allah blesses your effort!

  4. We thank Allah for this wonderful work of yours.May Allah ta-Allah increase you in knowledge and wisdom to do more than you can think of.

    1. Aaaamin masha’Allah! We really appreciate your time with us. Jazakallahu khairan….

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